The purpose of this paper is to develop a web-based interactive learning object (ILO) of  introductory Computer Science (CS) concept on recursion and compare two feedback methods  in the learning assessment part.


Test driven development (TDD) approach was used to develop ILO. The authors adapted  Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching (MERLOT) standard  instrument to evaluate ILO’s effectiveness as an e-learning tool. Three respondents, from a list  of pre-identified prospective evaluators, were randomly chosen and served as raters for  MERLOT, while 32 student-respondents coming from first-year Math and CS undergraduate  majors were randomly assigned to each ILO version implementing either one of the two  feedback methods.


ILO obtained mean ratings above 4 (in scale 1-5) in three MERLOT criteria, namely, potential  effectiveness as teaching tool, ease of use, and quality of content, which is rated highest  (mean=4.40, SD=0.53). The study also revealed that immediate feedback increases retention  while delayed feedback improves generating new knowledge. Respondents who viewed the  ILO implementing immediate feedback in their first session had statistically significantly higher  scores (mean=8.25, SD=0.80) than those who viewed with delayed feedback (mean=7.63,  SD=0.89). In their second session, the same observation was noted although with higher mean  scores. These results give evidence that the developed ILO met standards in e-learning material  and showed evidence of its effectiveness with preferably implementing immediate feedback.

Research limitations/implications 

Although the developed ILO can now be used in school as supplementary learning material in  teaching the concept of recursion in an introductory CS subject, a pilot testing of the web-based  ILO using a larger sample of respondents to validate its effectiveness for online distance  learning educational material can be pursued. Furthermore, in designing and creating an ILO,  the provision of feedback during the assessment stage is necessary for effecting learning.


The study was a first to develop ILO for CS topic on recursion. The paper also compared which  of two known feedback methods is best to implement in an ILO.

Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, Vol. 12 Issue: 2, pp. 218-229. https://doi.org/10.1108/AAOUJ-02-2017-0019.